澳洲亿忆网专栏教育高考阅卷老师直言:英语书面表达得分低?只因为你没掌握这些技巧

高考阅卷老师直言:英语书面表达得分低?只因为你没掌握这些技巧

2020-03-26 来源:英语周报 阅读数 869 分享
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高考书面表达备考指南

一、考纲解读

书面表达是高考英语试卷中的重要组成部分,考查学生能否“准确使用语法和词汇”以及“使用一定的句型、词汇,清楚、连贯地表达自己的意思”。

分析《普通高等学校招生全国统一考试大纲的说明》中的“评分原则”可知,写作时需要注意的内容有:

1. 词数:多于120或少于80时,从总分中减去2分;

2. 内容要点;

3. 应用词汇和语法结构的数量和准确性及上下文的连贯性;

4. 拼写与标点符号;

5. 书写:如书写较差以致影响交际,分数会降低一个档次。

第1、4、5条只要考生适当注意,就会避免不必要的失分。考生需要重点关注的是内容要点、词汇和语法结构的数量和准确性以及上下文的连贯性。

二、解题步骤

1. 审题立意

审题立意是写作的首要环节。考生要认真阅读写作要求中提供的信息,分析所给的写作素材,确定所写文章的体裁及整体内容,并确定要用的人称和时态。

2. 罗列要点

书面表达评分标准之一是覆盖所有内容要点。高考英语书面表达多数会提供写作要点,通过审题,要将这些要点用提纲的形式在草稿纸上罗列好。罗列要点时要确保主要内容,适当涉及次要内容,坚决剔除无关内容。

对于只给出情境没有提供写作要点的书面表达,考生需找出暗含在情境中的要点,并根据文章体裁加入必要的开头和结尾。

3. 连句成篇

确定了文章的整体布局、基本时态和人称后,要根据所列出的内容要点选择适当的词语组合成句,再结合自己设想的内容框架组成段落。不要逐句翻译要点,可以适当增加细节,以充实文章内容。在组织文章内容时,要在句与句之间加入恰当的过渡性词语进行润色,以使内容连贯,结构紧凑。

4. 修改完善

写完文章后一定要仔细检查。首先检查文章是否包括全部要点,然后再检查语言方面是否有错误,如单词拼写、词语搭配、人称、时态、语态、主谓一致、句式、从句的引导词、标点符号、大小写等。

三、高考链接

下面我们以2018年全国卷I中的书面表达为例,为大家展示一下上文所讲的解题步骤。

假定你是李华,你的新西兰朋友Terry将去中国朋友家做客,发邮件向你询问有关习俗。请你回复邮件,内容包括:1. 到达时间;2. 合适的礼物;3. 餐桌礼仪。

【任务分析】本题要求写一封邮件,向新西兰朋友介绍中国的做客习俗。人称以第二或第三人称为主,时态以一般现在时为主。

邮件通常包括的内容有:称呼——首段陈述写信目的——邮件主体(即内容要点)——结束语。内容要点包括到达时间、合适的礼物和餐桌礼仪。要点一的内容相对明确:准时或比约定时间稍提前点即可;要点二、三可写的内容比较多,但考虑到词数限制,各写一到两点即可。写作内容确定后,接下来就是连句成篇和修改完善。

【范文展示】

One possible version:

Dear Terry,

Nice to hear from you. I’m glad that I can provide you with some information about how to be a guest of Chinese.

To begin with, according to our tradition, you are supposed to arrive early, so that you can help the family prepare the dinner, which is not only meaningful but also interesting. Besides, it’s polite to bring a gift for your host. However, the gift needn’t to be valuable. Just choose anything you like. What’s more, when enjoying the meal, you need to avoid making noises while chewing food.

Hopefully, these suggestions will be helpful for you. I’m sure that you’ll have a great time.

Yours,

Li Hua

四、得分策略

高考书面表达长久以来都是得分率较低的题型,这其中的一个主要原因就是很多考生写不出正确的句子。因此,得分策略的基石就是熟悉并能够运用基本句型。

基本句型:

①主语+不及物动词(I will stay.)

②主语+系动词+表语(Tom is proud.)

③主语+及物动词+宾语(The kids are making cake.)

④主语+双宾动词+间接宾语+直接宾语(Linda gave me a present.)

⑤主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语 (She found the work very dull.)

⑥主语+不及物动词+状语(The plane leaves at 12:30.)

⑦主语+及物动词+宾语+状语(You can put the flower there.)

⑧存现句,即There be句型(There is a slide in the playground.)

熟练掌握以上句型后,我们可以从以下三个方面来增加文章的亮点,提升文章层次。

1. 词汇:尽量丰富书面表达中使用的词汇,力求准确生动。

示例1:Her classmates didn’t look at her as they walked to their classes.

→Her classmates ignored her as they raced to their classes.

示例2:I wanted to learn everything.

→I had a strong appetite for knowledge.

2. 句型:尽量使书面表达中的语法结构多样化。

(1)合并句子

a. 使用介词短语、非谓语动词合并句子

示例1:Three months passed. You gave me much help.

→During the past three months, you gave me much help.

示例2:I’ve lived with you for half a year. I’ve developed a deep friendship with you.

→Having lived with you for half a year, I’ve developed a deep friendship with you.

b. 使用名词性从句、定语从句、状语从句合并句子

示例1:Everything would be all right. I knew it from your warm smile.

→I knew from your warm smile that everything would be all right.

示例2:Paper-cutting has a very long history. Its themes include nearly everything.

→Paper-cutting has a very long history, whose themes include nearly everything.

示例3:We arrived at the station. Then we got down to work.

→As soon as we arrived at the station, we got down to work.

(2)改变语态

示例:I’ve learned from the Internet that your summer camp needs some volunteers.

→I’ve learned from the Internet that some volunteers are needed at your summer camp.

(3)变换句式:使用疑问句、感叹句、倒装句、省略句、强调句

示例1:I cannot think of anywhere else that one could be so relaxed.

→Where else could one be so relaxed?

示例2:He is an amazing kid.

→What an amazing kid he is!

示例3:By helping each other, we can make our society a better place.

→Only by helping each other can we make our society a better place.

示例4:I donated two books. John donated three books.

→I donated two books; John, three.

示例5:Reading well requires long-time training.

→It is long-time training that reading well requires.

3. 行文:有效使用语句间的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑。

除一些表示顺序和简单逻辑关系的连接成分外,以下连接成分也可为书面表达增色。

当然,了解写作步骤和掌握一些写作策略对于拿高分来说是远远不够的。高考佳作植根于平时的点滴训练与积累,所以同学们需要认真对待每一次练习的机会,夯实基础,厚积才能薄发。

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